The authors examine three case studies of the coal and steel sectors from North Rhine Westphalia in Germany, the UK and Bilbao in the Basque region of Spain.These regional transitions are important because change will impact on these regions either directly through environmental catastrophe or evolving socio-economic models. Each story highlights marked differences in the approach, ownership and legacy of regional rejuvenation. Each region’s approach gives powerful insights on the need to realign EU, national and regional transition policy, the Multiannual Financial Framework, regional policy, the Covenant of Mayors, clean energy and climate policy to empower leaders. According to the authors, the key issues analysed are:
- Models to organise change at a regional, national and EU level
- Means to finance transition
- How to ensure delivery of key outcomes.